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【投書】別再拿實習「做中學」當作節省成本的藉口

2019, July 7 - 22:57
圖:公庫報導

文/蘇子軒(高教工會青年行動委員會召集人)

日前,張淑宜女士針對實習生議題,在聯合報上發表投書,認為「實習生和實習單位之間沒有簽訂勞雇契約,因此不存在雇傭關係」。張女士更認為高教工會主張的「實習生有工作事實就應給薪」是背離實務,因為(一)實習生需要「做中學」;(二)實習生不諳工作、容易出錯;(三)公家單位實習生未經國家考試合格任用,不能給薪;(四)給薪增加預算,雇主將不願讓學生實習。

顯然,張女士對勞動法有不少誤解之處。基於保護勞工的立場,法院在實務上早就不以契約類型作為判定雇傭關係的基準,而以「從屬性」進行實質認定,例如工作是否受雇主指揮監督、是否為了雇主之經濟利益而勞動等。換句話說,就算實習生與雇主沒有簽訂勞雇契約,只要提供勞務的事實存在,雇主就應該遵守勞動法令、給付薪水。

張女士指出實習生是做中學且容易失誤,不應視為一般勞工。然而,試問哪位勞工不是透過學習來熟悉職場環境與工作業務?公司進行教育訓練的目的,不正是協助員工習得工作知識與技能?按照相同邏輯,難道企業也可據此不給付薪資?公家單位的實習生拿不到薪資,更是嚴重的誤解。我們知道,公家機關可以聘僱適用勞基法的臨時人員,並無所謂「未經國家考試合格任用,不能給薪」。

張女士認為企業接納實習生已承擔風險與成本,再給薪水的話,企業將不願讓學生實習。然而,如果聘用實習生真這麼高風險、高成本,為什麼實習愈來愈普遍(具校外實習經驗的應屆畢業生已超過總人數的七成)?

根據我們去年的調查,高達67%的學生是無薪實習。除外,因為許多實習是必修課程、成績掌握在雇主手中,實習生的處境往往比正職差,卻也不敢替自己發聲。不少實習生跟我們反映:工作無異於正職人員,月薪卻低好幾千元、甚至沒有薪水;實習生比較容易被要求臨時加班;學校規定不能輕易轉換實習單位,遇到不肖雇主只能吞忍。換句話說,與「高風險、高成本」恰恰相反,真實情況是實習生太便宜、太好用了。

張女士很擔心給付薪水將使企業不願讓學生實習。但是,我們不妨換個角度思考:為什麼學生非得實習不可?我們已從上述實習生的處境清楚看到,所謂「從做中學」、「提升就業力」的實習,不過是企業節省成本的託辭!說穿了,實習生就是廉價的替代人力,拉低了整體勞動條件。

令人遺憾的是,教育部這十年來投注大量經費補助大專校院開設實習課程,卻從未反省實習造成的勞動濫用、以及薪資被壓低的災難性後果。近來,教育部推出《專科以上學校校外實習教育法》草案,聲稱要改善血汗實習生的困境,在我們看來依然是搞錯重點:儘管草案將部分實習生歸類為受勞基法保障的「工作型」,卻開了後門,使為期三個月內的實習仍可能沒有勞動保障。

許多學生都是在寒暑假進行短期實習,草案並無法解決這些實習生被剝削的問題。我們認為根本的解決之道,是請勞動部針對實習單位進行全面勞檢;也應該逐步減少必修實習課程,別再拿「做中學」當作企業節省成本的藉口了。

這篇文章 【投書】別再拿實習「做中學」當作節省成本的藉口 最早出現於 公民行動影音紀錄資料庫

【新聞稿】缺德、缺才、缺良心,核電中毒症? 國民黨總統參選人能源政策都不及格!

2019, July 6 - 22:20

文/台灣環境保護聯盟、台灣反核行動聯盟

出席發言者:
台灣環保聯盟現任會長 劉志堅/創會會長 施信民
鹽寮反核自救會 總幹事楊木火
野薑花公民協會理事長 陳雪梨
台灣北社秘書長 潘威佑

針對國民黨7月3日舉辦的最後一場總統參選人「國政願景電視發表會」,台灣反核行動聯盟5日召開記者會,對總統初選參選人能源政策打分數,通通不及格,因參選人都選擇核能而非綠能。環保聯盟批評他們缺德、缺才、缺良心,懷疑是得了核電中毒症,「綠能減煤」就是解藥。其中韓國瑜、周錫瑋、張亞中三位要重啟核四,被評為死當;郭台銘和朱立倫,答題時論及節能減碳、智慧電網、儲能等能源轉型的基礎工作,可參加補考,還算有救。環保聯盟也請國民黨戒除「核粉」的假新聞,才能減輕核電中毒症狀,也呼籲民眾支持環保聯盟提案、台灣反核行動聯盟共同推動的「廢核.再生」公投,在九月底前達到三十萬人門檻,以人民力量阻止核電復甦,實現台灣能源轉型。

韓國瑜在政見會上說非核家園「缺良心」、「缺德比缺電更嚴重」。環保團體反批,重啟核四不顧在地民眾反對。才是「缺良心」;不認真做政策研究,依舊信口開河,提出不知所云、沒有依據的二○三五年「五○五○」計畫,只會抱緊「核粉」網軍酸民的謊言不放,是「缺才」;將貽害五十萬年的核廢料留給後代子孫,更是造惡業的「缺德」事。況且,核一廠從去年底除役,非核家園進行式,根本沒有缺電,入夏之後台電每日高掛供電充裕的綠燈,尖峰備轉容量率都在十%以上。

郭台銘、朱立倫、韓國瑜等人,還迷戀去年選舉抹黑造謠的「用肺發電」口號,但是所謂「以核養綠」的燃煤比例高達四成,遠比非核家園的三成還高,「用肺發電」根本是打臉自己。聯合報能源民調專題報導,數據顯示近年的空氣品質變好。

郭台銘強調他在產業界節電的經驗,和關於氣候變遷巴黎協定的世界趨勢,低碳已是國家競爭力的關鍵指標。但郭董真的懂嗎?台灣經濟命脈的外銷訂單,正面臨蘋果等大廠組成RE100聯盟承諾100%再生能源的壓力,綠色供應鍊之內的台積電,因此向政府要求更充足的綠能。郭台銘為了爭取擁核的國民黨提名,換位子換腦袋轉向積極發展核電,未來蘋果一定會叫鴻海用綠電、不要用核電,郭台銘不想丟臉就快把正確的腦袋換回來。

朱立倫認同非核家園的理想,但卻誤以為現實達不到而要「核盡其用」。其實,核一廠年滿四十除役,連用過燃料棒都沒辦法退出,接下來核二、核三廠也都陸續屆齡依法除役,這樣的鞠躬盡瘁難道不是「核盡其用」嗎,非核家園當然做得到,也不躁進。自稱「正常倫」的朱立倫,能源政策可別和「草包」或「錢包」看齊一再露下限。

這篇文章 【新聞稿】缺德、缺才、缺良心,核電中毒症? 國民黨總統參選人能源政策都不及格! 最早出現於 公民行動影音紀錄資料庫

不滿私校辦學多弊端 私校工會:政府應召開高教國是會議

2019, July 6 - 16:52

文/公庫記者洪育增

近年受到少子化浪潮的影響,私校辦學弊端層出不窮,造成不少教師權益受損、工作沒保障,因此7月5日全國私校工會到教育部前發起「705為私校點燈」抗議行動,希望政府盡速召開「高等教育國是會議」,針對《私校法》、《大學法》進行修法,保障私校教師的權益。

全國私校工會理事長尤榮輝表示,台灣總共有366所私立學校,每年照顧約122萬名學生,負擔全國70%的大專生及46%的高中生,但政府卻沒有重視私校教學品質與環境,長期漠視私校廉價辦學的問題,希望政府召開高等教育國是會議,出面解決。

尤榮輝提到,「高等教育國是會議」討論的面向包括政府政策、高教定位、大學定位、教育資源分配、學費的制定、老師及大學的退場問題等,目前教育部沒有積極作為,反而讓私校自生自滅,高教繼續沉淪,此次的抗議正是要提醒教育部應該有所作為。

尤榮輝指出,目前私校教師的議題大多與少子化現象有關。

尤榮輝還強調,私校教師的議題大多與少子化現象有關,部分校方為了節省成本,要求教師無償負擔招生業務、行政業務、周休二日進行家訪電訪等工作,或者惡意裁員,提高每一位教師需要負擔的授課時數,甚至以扣除年終獎金、薪資、董事會霸凌等方式給教師壓力。這些狀況導致私校教師的工作不僅沒有保障,甚至影響教學品質,也連帶損害學生的受教權益。

「這根本是一個失控狀態,不是正常學校的辦學狀態!」尤榮輝進一步提到,在私校體制中,私立高中職的教育現場又比大專院校更為慘烈,尤其部分高中職的校長缺乏民主素養,以獨裁的方式辦學,導致有些私立高中職教師只是想單純教書,卻被校方逼退、扣薪、資遣等,造成私立高中職教師人心惶惶。

南華大學哲學系教授謝青龍痛批,台灣高等教育已是「千瘡百孔」並且荒謬不公。從最急迫的「私校轉退場機制」到許久未修法的《私校法》及《大學法》,看不出政府周全的準備與計畫,也因此需要召開國是會議,讓教育部官員、立法委員們共同思考台灣需要什麼樣的高教遠景?

南華大學哲學系教授謝青龍痛批,台灣近年來的高教發展用「千瘡百孔」四個字足以彰顯荒謬與不公。

謝青龍指出,台灣高教問題也反映在教師評鑑的制度,尤其私校大多透過「利益操控」及「利益資遣解聘」兩種方式進行評鑑,讓教師們受不了多如牛毛的評鑑規則、負荷不了招生的壓力,以及扣薪、扣年終、調派等手段,被迫選擇自行離職,校方便能如願省下資遣費。

謝青龍進一步指出,目前評鑑機制並不能真正發現高等教育的問題,不但成了校方控制教師的手段,還充斥著造假文化。

他說,評鑑機制就像體檢,一般人希望透過健康檢查找出身體的問題,大學也可以透過評鑑找到教育的問題,但現今的教師評鑑制度,其實像造假的健康檢查,透過各種手段掩蓋教育體制的問題,告訴社會大眾高教狀況良好。謝青龍認為,造假文化不僅遮蓋了真相,也突顯出教育部無能面對問題,對高教的未來缺乏規劃。

謝青龍表示,少子化未必是危機,反而可能成為轉機。當每位老師所要負擔、照顧的學生更少,才更能提高教學品質,學生的受教權益受到保障。謝青龍也呼籲政府部門應盡速通過「私立大專校院轉型及退場條例」,否則當私校董事會把校產納入個人口袋之後,這些經費再也無法作為高等教育公共化的資源,反而變成個人財產。

前來接受陳情的教育部高教司副司長梁學政表示,未來也會在聽取校方意見,以及像是勞動部等其他部會的意見後,進行相關改善。

教育部高教司副司長梁學政接受陳情時表示,肯定私校教職員的辦學用心,但由於訴求繁多,因此會在聽取校方及相關部會意見後,再進行改善。

在場參與抗議的教職員也在現場點燃蠟燭,希望能替私立學校及高等教育的未來點亮光明。國民黨立委柯志恩,以及時代力量立委徐永明、黃國昌也到現場。3位立法委員提到,執政黨從2016年針對《私校法》進行第一次黨團協商後,直到2019年的今天,再也沒有進行二讀,修法停滯,承諾會在未來繼續推動修法程序。

前來抗議的教職員共同合唱《私校教師要團結》。

這篇文章 不滿私校辦學多弊端 私校工會:政府應召開高教國是會議 最早出現於 公民行動影音紀錄資料庫

【聲明】回應文大推廣教育部:惡質打壓工會、解雇工會幹部三大鐵證 資方無從否認!

2019, July 5 - 23:52

文/台灣高等教育產業工會

文化大學推廣教育部自去年七月一日起至今,已經超過百人離職,50人資遣,但同一時間卻仍然新聘近80人。正因如此,高教工會文大分部自去年起,即已多次透過各種管道表達強烈質疑,要求資方針對人力裁減等影響工作權之事宜應公開說明,並儘速與工會協商,然而文大推廣教育部資方卻遲遲拒絕回應。工會對文大推廣教育部罔顧員工工作權的挑戰與質疑,成了此次資方違法解雇工會分部核心幹部之根本導火線:

一、為了更有效捍衛推廣部員工工作權,高教工會文化大學分部所推派五席勞資會議勞方代表候選人,於6月7日的改選結果中,全數當選並一舉囊括所有勞方代表席次,五位工會代表共獲近七成票數(179票/總票數259),文大推廣部資方選擇在6月21日改選後第一次勞資會議結束後一週,對三名具有勞資會議勞方代表身分之工會幹部進行解雇。對工會幹部打壓之針對性無庸置疑。

二、工會文大分部於6月28日中午對推廣教育部全體員工進行「文大推廣教育長施政周年滿意度問卷調查」,調查發出後,文大推廣教育部資方不但以莫須有之違反「個資法」為由,發信恫嚇員工填寫,更於問卷發出後不到三個小時內,火速將文化大學分部召集人等兩位核心幹部予以解雇,意圖阻撓工會分部所發出之問卷調查昭然若揭。

三、文化大學推廣教育部資方近兩週,針對三位工會幹部(包括分部召集人、副召集人;三人皆為勞資會議勞方代表)所發動的突襲式解雇,雖以「業務緊縮」為藉口,然而解雇前完全未依法進行任何安置程序,其中於5月解雇工會分部副召集人一案,於6月25日台北市勞動局勞資爭議調解委員會議中,在場官方、勞方與資方三方委員一致認定:文化推廣教育部所提供證明其確有「業務緊縮」之理由不足,建請校方重新考慮解雇決定,並於7月9日即將召開的第二次調解委員會中回覆三位委員。然而,資方竟然反在調解會議結束後,加碼將另外兩位工會幹部一同解雇,藐視勞動法令與勞動主管機關,一心只為打壓、殲滅工會之行徑令人髮指!

高教工會除了對文化大學推廣教育部資方惡意違法打壓工會、解雇工會幹部之行徑表達最嚴厲之譴責外,將循一切「體制內」與「體制外」的管道捍衛權益(日內將送行政院勞動部提起不當勞動行為裁決申請),務必讓每一位遭到違法解雇的工會幹部與會員回到工作崗位上,未來也將持續工會文大分部之一切運作,絕不可能讓惡質資方消滅工會之企圖得逞。

高教工會強調:文大推廣教育部違法解雇、打壓工會之事實至為明確!連目前已經進入罷工第二週的長榮航空公司資方,至今尚未解雇任何一位工會幹部,文化推廣教育部資方卻以比長榮航空資方更惡劣之手段來意圖消滅工會!一旦相關法令救濟程序回復遭解雇之工會幹部與會員之工作權,工會要求做出此一違法決策的文大推廣教育部教育長許惠峰,必須辭去教育長與文化大學法律系教授之職務,並承一切擔賠償責任!

這篇文章 【聲明】回應文大推廣教育部:惡質打壓工會、解雇工會幹部三大鐵證 資方無從否認! 最早出現於 公民行動影音紀錄資料庫

從桃園走到總統府陳情 長榮空服員盼辣台妹挺罷工妹

2019, July 5 - 21:44

文/公庫記者楊鵑如、許詩愷

長榮空服員罷工已進入第16天,由於近期勞資協商在「禁止秋後算帳、和平義務條款」兩項爭議處卡關,工會方擔心接受後將使工會運作名存實亡,因此今日發起苦行,從桃園南崁罷工棚走到總統府陳情,盼政府嚴格監督長榮遵守《工會法》,勿限制未來工會的罷工權和言論自由。

苦行於凌晨5點40分出發,並沿南崁、龜山、新莊、板橋、萬華一路前往總統府,參加者由起點約五十人陸續增加至百餘人,其中過半為空服員和家屬,且有支持者自願加入,最後隊伍走了11個小時,於下午4點30分抵達凱達格蘭大道,總距離為32公里,每位參與苦行的空服員在標語上簽名後,由三名代表將陳情書送入總統府,希望蔡英文「辣台妹挺罷工妹」。

「我們今天準備了繡球花想要送給小英總統,象徵著希望與圓滿,唯有守護勞工人權,台灣的未來才充滿了希望,也希望這次的勞資爭議早日圓滿落幕。」桃園市空服員職業工會理事、長榮空服員林昱嘉強調,全台工會組成率只有7%,長榮罷工之路走來艱辛,他們合法行使罷工權卻無法換得資方重視,這場苦行不是要總統為我們爭得利益,只是希望總統幫忙監督企業,勿讓企業能無視法律及政府,對工會恣意打壓。

針對外界提出「苦行赴總統府」陳情將模糊罷工焦點,且政府不應介入民間企業的勞資糾紛等質疑,桃園市空服員職業工會秘書長鄭雅菱昨晚也在Facebook上回應:「不是希望蔡總統幫忙工會爭取多一點錢,而是希望蔡總統可以要求長榮航空遵法,也幫忙勞工堅守住勞動人權的基本立場。」

鄭雅菱說明,他們並未把責任歸咎給政府,而是長榮公司不肯放棄秋後算賬,並要求工會簽下嚴苛的「和平義務」條款,包含未來必須預告罷工、工會不得詆毀公司,工會會員不得霸凌非會員等,這些舉動形同消滅工會,也違反《工會法》。工會強調,情勢已超出勞資對決的範疇,成為威權和民主的戰爭,若長榮集團可以對勞工咨意妄為,對台灣社會將造成嚴重影響。

林昱嘉提及,眾人苦行時蔡英文對外公開表示她一直在關注罷工,呼籲長榮航空應對員工「保持珍惜、疼愛的心情。」而讓她願意走上街頭,並堅持至今的原因,便是長榮內部的專制管理文化。林昱嘉講到激動處不禁落淚「我還記得第一天拉糾察線時,內勤同仁及主管對我們的謾罵,首席副總手指著我,說他說了算,長榮就是專制怎麼樣!」但她依然盼望能等到長榮航空變好的一天。

至於目前的卡關處,林昱嘉則認為,勞資協商中工會已徵得實質調薪、延長過勞航班的過夜月份、參與人評機制、定期和公司會談等,是過去兩年,談了20次都無法突破的門檻,但或許是工會的成果加劇資方想限制工會的決心,才會衍生出「禁止秋後算帳、和平條款」爭議。

而長榮公司昨、今日的聲明稿中痛批桃空職工三年內發動華航、長榮兩次罷工,犧牲旅客權益又造成社會動盪,要求工會回應三個問題「禁止霸凌非工會員工、和平義務條款、歸還三寶」才能再行協商,否則只是一再博得版面,對解決爭議並無實質意義。

桃空職工副秘書長周聖凱對此表示,長榮首席副總何慶生在罷工第一天不斷羞辱空服員,恐嚇「回去後看怎麼收拾你!」這讓人不禁想問「到底是誰在霸凌?」至於和平義務條款,工會也絕不可能接受此不對等條約,三寶(員工證、護照、台胞證)則要等公司願意對等協商,雙方簽訂團體協約後,自然會歸還給所有參與罷工的會員,工會也期待儘早看到罷工圓滿落幕。

「工會要的是對等和尊重。」周聖凱強調,雙方已針對勞動條件達成協議,互有退讓,且工會也同意未來不對已有共識的事項發起罷工,願意遵守誠信原則,但公司提出的「和平義務」卻是剝奪工會應有的權利,簽訂團體協約已到最後一哩路,此發展並非工會樂見,他們隨時願意和長榮資方對話,罷工結束日將取決於公司是否有誠意解決爭議。

桃園市產業總工會秘書長葉瑾瑜則指出,蔡英文競選2016年總統時提出的六大勞工政見中,便明載了「公平的勞資關係」將促成社會進步,甚至提高競爭力,所以要逐漸提高工會的涵蓋率、推動勞工參與公司治理。葉瑾瑜認為,這些目標和工會訴求不謀而合,且長榮空服員和蔡英文一樣是推動改革、對壓迫展現意志堅定的女性,因此希望總統給予支持。

這篇文章 從桃園走到總統府陳情 長榮空服員盼辣台妹挺罷工妹 最早出現於 公民行動影音紀錄資料庫

【新聞稿】大量私校老師飯碗不保 教育部應嚴肅面對

2019, July 4 - 22:34

文/全國教師工會總聯合會

全國教師工會總聯合會(全教總)近1個多月來,陸續接到私校會員投訴,學校常以財務狀況不佳、招生不足,或是因為私自調高每週授課節數標準,所以沒課可以排給教師為理由,解聘或通知教師下學期不續聘,另外,擁有較長年資的教師被強迫退休或不續聘時有所聞,即使教師透過申訴或是司法途徑完成救濟,學校依舊不執行,甚至延宕製發教師聘書,這樣的會員個案至少有5校33位教師並且有快速攀升的跡象。

經全教總進一步了解,雲林縣私立大成商工在去年違法解聘或不續聘的9位教師當中,有6位是擁有比較長的服務年資,另外3位學校片面宣稱與教師間有約定,但是經過全教總的協助,9位教師經過救濟都獲有理由的評議決定,但是學校仍拒不執行評議結果,教育部也只淪於紙上監督,並無敦促學校完成改善。同樣在雲林縣的永年高中,學校因為財務缺口片面不續聘15位教師,其中11位在無選擇自由下迫與學校簽訂不明協議後離職,4位則可能須走上救濟的漫漫長路。

花蓮縣某天主教學校主張教師授課時數未達基本鐘點數,認定4位教師為超額教師,最終也可能走上解聘或不續聘一途,至於桃園市龜山區某私校,則是認為教師沒有遵守學校私訂的內部章則,所以口頭告知可能會不續聘,而台中市私校甚至僅口頭告知將不續聘教師,但是原因不明。

以上僅是全教總接獲會員投訴的部分,據某私校會員探詢後發現,台中市許多私校都有相同情形,而全教總會員投訴案量只是冰山一角,私校教師面臨飯碗不保的情形已經是普遍化,今年恐怕就會出現大量專任教師被裁減的情形。

其實,依據現行教師法第14及15條等相關法令的規定,如果沒有符合一定的條件及完備程序,私校是不能隨意就解聘或不續聘教師,然而,多年來教育部在接獲個案時,多只要求學校說明或形式上稱會扣減學校補助款,但是卻沒有採取任何積極作為「要求學校確實改善」,並且放任私校未依法執行申訴評議決定,都是加劇問題惡化的原因。

因此,全教總要求教育部要嚴肅面對並且積極處理,一方面要求學校必須符合教師法的規定,如果確定屬於超額教師則應在合乎法令規範下,完成相關程序,教師應有權益也應該予以保障。另一方面,教育部應儘速就招生人數不足,而產生教師資遣問題的私校提出輔導方案,以免衝擊大量教師的生計。

這篇文章 【新聞稿】大量私校老師飯碗不保 教育部應嚴肅面對 最早出現於 公民行動影音紀錄資料庫

【投書】大學兼任教師的苦難,是高教崩壞、不義的象徵

2019, July 3 - 21:43

文/鄭老師 (高教工會 大學兼任教師會員代表)

高教崩壞四個字,並不是危言聳聽。以台灣高等教育的教研環境與資源來說,無論是教師們的專業能力或課程的多元與深度,對有心學習與被細心栽培的學生來說,大學教育是成長與蛻變的關鍵。然而對於高教體系裡的工作者而言,各種虛虛實實的績效指標,早已凌駕教育與學術的本質與良知,才會層出不窮地出現論文作假、實驗作偽、無心教學,只求表象績效數字的現象。

我的朋友,因為被要求招生名額但無法達標,不得不辭去專任教職;我的同學,因為不堪導師工作完全壓縮研究空間,只好遠去他國任教;我的學弟,因為拒絕學生勒索加分,校方會議紀錄竟遭篡改而不被續聘。我身邊眾多的朋友們,作為高教主力的兼任教師,卻被教師法和勞基法排除在外!試問,企求優質的高教品質,卻拒絕提供教學主力的教師相對的基本工作保障,合理嗎?

試問,當你領著兼職的薪水,卻被要求幾近專職的工作,而當你提出勞基法的基本要求,卻被懷疑可能是狼師、會危害校園安全,所以不能享有勞基法的保障,這是什麼樣的邏輯?這竟是教育部對高教兼任教師訴求勞基法的回應!

因為可能有狼師的存在,所以需要讓校方有權隨時取消教師的工作權;那麼,校園中的專任教師和職員工,也可能有危害校園的風險;同理,也應該取消教師法和勞基法對專仼教師和職員工的保障嗎?同理,全國的受僱者,凡有勞基法保障者,皆可能因法律保障而危害社會?所以,全國受僱者,皆不應有勞基法的保障?

這種完全背離事實與邏輯的說法,正是高教崩壞的事實。身為教育主管機關的教育部,其思考與用心,本應從健全完善整體教育環境、保障師生長遠權益的角度出發,為兼任教師該有的尊重與保障發聲;結果,教育部卻釋放「勞基法無法處理不適任教師」等違背事實的錯假訊息,以鬥爭式手法污名化兼任教師,企圖誤導家長與社會大眾。這不是高教的崩壞,什麼才是高教的崩壞?

社會上各階層的工作,都有其辛苦與付出,都應受相對的尊重與保障。因此,本文的目的,並不在於比較工作量的多寡或辛苦程度,而是希望全國四萬人次以上,為高教持續努力的兼任教師,能獲得事實理解,並與一般工作者一樣,平等獲得合理的工作保障與可資救濟的管道。任由努力工作的人,被長期持續性地歧視與剝削,還無法可援,這是社會的不義。

20年來超過百張聘書,背後的真相是,沒有工作權的合理保障,聘期只有一學期。

我所授課的課程總共超過20門課,大約有1/5是單學期選修課,加退選後才確定開課,4/5是多年來延續性的必修課程。儘管教授的是十年來延續性的必修課,我的聘書聘期,早年還有一年,現卻只有一學期。

教育部和某些學校,往往說兼任教師所授課程是變動性的單學期的課程,所以不能給與兼任教師聘任的保障。事實上是,我們明明是支撐起長期的師資需求,教授的是長期延續性的必修課,卻被切割成臨時人員。

教育部和某些學校又說,為了課程的多元和與時俱進,不能給與兼任教師聘任的保障。事實上是,我目前在三所學校教授7門不同的課程之中,有2門就是學校開設的新課程。我們兼任教師正是不斷努力準備新課程,因應學校對教學方法與課程性質的需求,不斷與時俱進;所以,我們並不是落伍不知上進的魯蛇。

教育部主張,因為需要汰除不適任教師、因為要與時俱進的新教師、因為大學教師很特殊,所以不能適用勞基法。請問住院醫師們、律師們、各工作場域的工作者們,都因為勞基法的保障,變成不適任醫師無法汰除嗎?變成不適任的員工可以霸著工作不做嗎?

教育部更表示兼任老師已受「專科以上學校兼任教師聘任辦法」保障,但這項辦法根本不設罰則,若學校違反,教育部只能口頭勸說。同時,更欠缺了勞基法當中最重要的工作權(續聘)保障。更何況,高教工會對第一線工作的兼任教師所進行的問卷也顯示,八成的老師們並不認可所謂的聘任辦法對工作保障有何實質改善。近來學期末又有許多老師們反應被無理由不續聘,教育部只自稱已有辦法,卻坐視辦法沒有實效?

更令人不解的是,勞動部居然說,勞動部與教育部兩部決議,讓兼任教師受教師法規範;事實上是,兼任教師是編制外教師,既沒有教師法的保障、也沒有勞基法的保障。

教育部和勞動部的說法,總是有意無意地誤導社會大眾,讓大家誤以為已有諸多保障,兼任教師們還在爭取額外權益。再者,都育部不斷地重申,教師工作很特殊,不適用勞基法;然而,醫師有醫師法,律師有律師法,他們的工作也有特殊性,但也都受勞基法保障,何來窒礙難行?至於說兼任教師請假會損及學生受教權,專任教師請假就沒有學生受教權的問題,此種差別對待,不是歧視,又是什麼?

真正的工作實情是,我們兼任教師的教學評量,在5分制裡,往往單學期低於3.5或3.8,就會失去工作。因此,我們不會隨意請假,來承受教學現場的任何風險。教育部如果接地氣,就能立即明辨是非,不會跟著錯假的各種藉口起舞才對;事實上,教育部卻帶頭宣傳錯假訊息。兼任教師們,和所有教育工作者一樣,明明是教育工作夥伴,教育部卻似乎是將我們視為對立面的另一群人。

百張聘書的事實,見證了高教崩壞過程,兼任老師對高教的貢獻和被剝削;更說明了,我是不被法律保護的、兼任教師裡的,倖存者!

我的朋友當中,因為長了腫瘤需要請假開刀的、因為被學生勒索加分抗拒不從的、因為種種理由被視為配合度不夠的、因為學校把課程改來改去,所謂改善到把課程直接變成學生自學就好的,認真盡責的兼任老師們,已經被高教的崩壞和不義,來回輾壓了。

所以,勞基法,只是最基本、最應得、最卑微的訴求而已!

如果教育部覺得勞基法不適合,就讓我們直接納入教師法!

一學期四千份起跳的作業,熬夜批閱長時間的工作,絕不是教學現場的幾個小時而已。這是兼任教師的日常。

我每學期大約600-700個學生(也曾多達上千位學生,因為有學校把三班併成一班,高達140人一班),平均每個人6個成績,大約改四千份作業或考卷。還不算指導報告的時間和心力(不只平日的學習報告,有些學校舉辦常態性競賽,兼任教師也需義務指導學生參賽)。隨便在120公分的長桌上排一下,常擺不下,熬夜一直改,電郵一直回。

在智慧型手機24小時上線的環境裡,如何設計課程與教學,逐歩引導學生有效率的學習,擺脫上網成癮的情形,把常見的隨意瀏覽模式,切換成做中學的真確學習方式,是教學現場目前的日常。老師們需在短時間內掌握學生的學習狀況,回饋學生並指導其學習方法,提升學生思辨與運用能力;因此老師們必須在各種創意教學法中,設計各種討論與學習單,仔細用心地栽培學生。否則學生只是大略聽過,其實沒有被培養,只能假裝都學過些什麼,其實完全無法運用。

我們這麼努力,因為我們兼任教師,真的把學生的學習與人格的養成,當作最重要的事情。我們不是那種沒有原則地討好學生,實際上卻藏著關鍵不教,好讓學生只能永遠做助理的人。

教課、指導報告、長時間熬夜批閱學生的作業或報告,是兼任教師們工作的完結嗎?
不,遠遠不只於此。行動辦公室,反映出兼任教師常被當作類專任的日常!

車上的行動辦公室,就是我車上必備的工作用品,是兼任老師們自己最堅實的後盾。因為同一天需趕往不同學校,以前也需在不同的城市間奔波,沒有研究室,沒有可回家拿的條件(超過百公里遠),出門前都要帶好。近10年我都在同一城市教課,車上物品已少2/3。

不過,車上還是維持:1、待評閱的學生作業、報告、考卷。2、備課、研習、研究用資料。3、乾淨衣服和毛巾。4、筆記型電腦。5、便當盒+小餅乾(常態性的,交通上緊繃無法用餐時的代餐)。由於是學期末,已清掉大部分。這是物品最少的狀況。

為什麼車上的工作用品會這麼多?除了沒有研究室之外,真正的問題是,兼任教師最花時間心力的,是要參加各種教學研習會、工作坊、學術研討會。這包括了備課過程的大量閱讀、實地考察、製作教學簡報和教學講義、各種會議所需的報告,撰寫論文、填寫配合行政作業的各種表單報告。最瑣碎又急如星火的,是行政作業的各種表單,有時熬夜整星期還做不完一份。每個學校,都有需要配合的各種會議和工作;有段時間,我常週五下午接到電話,要我下週一或週三前完成新工作。從以上長期的事實,可以對照出,教育部真的不了解第一線工作現場。以上任何工作,只要兼任教師無法即時完成,就可能淪為被指責「不配合」、「不適任」或不予續聘的教師!

尤有甚者,若是學校申請教育部等單位的計畫,兼任老師也得撰寫計畫並執行計畫,耗費的時間心力比平日多出好幾倍,頂多是換幾個中午開會便當。有時我會自備便當,畢竟,實在不想吃這種便當,這算是我小小的發洩吧!

其實,我個人非常珍惜參加各式研習會議和工作坊中,和志趣相近的老師們,互相切磋、互相鼓勵的過程。但有不少兼任教師,直接被要求提供各種備課檔案,包括語言課程的教材題庫,甚至被要求錄影示範解說作為數位教材、為其他老師們提供各種教案、教學簡報、講義、懶人包等等。大家不妨想想,是哪些人,如此順理成章地,「要」走兼任教師們的心血結晶?「要」去做什麼?還要兼任教師們簽名「同意提供」、「授權使用」!

準備教學研究的各種書籍資料,兼任教師得自費準備,連圖書館和研究小間的使用權都比不上研究所學生,借書還要保證人,但費盡心力做出的教研成果,卻直接被攘奪。教育部真的看不出來兼任教師受到的差別待遇和層層剝削,就是因為在編制外,就是因為沒有合理的續聘保障,才會任人欺凌嗎?長期被搶走自己的教研成果,難道不是被壓榨的苦難嗎?

身為資深的兼任教師,我們能為自己爭取的,恐怕已很有限。我們之所以挺身而出,主要也是希望後輩兼任教師們,不要再受到這些不應有的苦難所折磨。

20年來,高教的崩壞,導致很多循環相害的問題。

有些私校的專任或專案教師們(聘期只有一年),過的其實是壓力很大的、集點積分人生的日子;從國科會研究申請、產學合作案、論文發表與升等、指導學生參賽得獎、各式資歷證照、參加各項研習會議、輔導學生紀錄,甚至招生……等等,都有不同的積點積分,有些還有行政職的龐大工作量。在這種唯恐點數分數不足的情形之下,還能有多少心力和時間投入在教學上?

因此,有些專任老師先挑走最想要的時段和班級,把早八和晚上的課,留給兼任教師;有些老師把時間留給自己做研究,把兼任教師的教學簡報,直接在課堂上「播映」。甚至有些教學單位,已經沒有任何一位專任教師,單位主管也只好把所有的工作,都請兼任教師們一起配合完成。

兼任教師們在努力「配合」之下,一天工作12-16小時都忙不完,教育部看不見這些差別待遇下各式各樣的苦難,看不見學生受教品質被架構性的教育崩壞所犧牲,還擺出高姿態,指責兼任教師們為何不另謀創業?在教學現場,以教學為前提而不是以自己研究計畫為前提的,把學生受教品質視為最重要事情的,正是作為高教主力的兼任教師們!教育部口口聲聲重視學生受教權,卻把最重視教學現場的我們,視為不適任、危害校園安全的壞份子,所以需要每學期控管?

或許,有些人總會說著「至少……」的風涼話,至少還有課教、至少比起被欠薪的教師……。但是,稍微學過同理連結的人都知道,用「至少」來作為發話端,根本沒有同理的素養,切斷了互動的連結,更完全欠缺反思進歩改革的空間。

大學兼任教師,已經承受失去親人卻無法奔喪的痛,也多次歷經不良於行都勉力授課的苦,連因登革熱高燒都還得上課;但我們還有著更多的義憤,看著身邊同為兼任教師的好友,有的長年認真用心、專業優秀,被要求為其他老師提供諸多教學資源,只因開刀請假,竟被污名化為不適任教師;有的兼仼逾20年,長期教學評量都是學校前10%,卻在期限過後才接到要求說明某一班教學評量的電郵(請老師15日前回覆,電郵卻在16日才發出),而後連一封信函都沒有,便不予續聘。還有專任教師,當著我們的面,提案要求我們被錄影和製作各種數位教材,最終目的直說是教材庫充足後便不需教學人力。還有轉成專案教師的兼任教師,辭去各校兼任後,聘期一年隨即被終止聘約,也沒任何理由;還有更多更多為了各種計畫績效,被強加在兼任教師身上的工作,包括輸入學生成績的方式,一個班就要輸入600次才能送出成績。

偶爾,我下課時間詢問學生的意見。學生們無法想像,兼任教師被剝奪奔喪的喪假,被要求高燒仍然來上課,好維護學生的受教權,學生們覺得這樣很變態、很沒人性,也不會因為一位長期用心教導他們的老師,因為偶發性困難無法到課,就覺得自己受教權受損。所以,當所謂聘任辦法可以請假,有些學校卻以內規要求必須請同校同領域教師代課,而該時段又沒有資格相符的老師的時候,就會發生還是請不成假的事情,更何況都得自付代課費用。學生也不認為,要老師輸入600次才能送出一個班的成績,對他們的學習,會有什麼樣真正的助益。學生直接問了最根本的問題:這麼扭曲的事情,是誰的需要?是誰在操縱?為什麼不能被改正?人們接受教育,不就是為了慎思明辨,改變不對的事情嗎?

工作環境和待遇,都是兼任;工作內容和要求,直逼專任。我們只訴求勞基法,竟還要被污名化,損傷學生受教權?危害校園安全?真是顛倒黑白的世界!

為了終止高教的不義與惡性循環,爭取正向發展的合理工作保障,我們兼任教師拒絕被作為無意義的工具人!

還給高教兼任教師合理的工作保障,還給教育現場應有的正向力量,停止惡劣的歧視和剝削,就從大學兼任教師納入勞基法開始!

【世新兼任教師的心聲】
670元買走教師的尊嚴?他們究竟在抗爭什麼?
七年的兼課,換來電子郵件通知不續聘
我在世新很久了….呼籲校方收回兼任教師不續聘案!

【了解必讀】
教育部阻上萬兼任教師納《勞基法》? 高教工會呼籲跨部盡速研議
兼任教師「大量解聘」頻傳 勞團、師生籲勞動部介入救濟

兼任教師「排擠效應」浮現 適用勞基法族群排不到課
教育部撤兼任教師納《勞基法》 高教工會批:教部與大學打假球
大學兼任教師失業潮是政府造成的

【燦爛時光會客室】
《燦爛時光會客室》第139集:納勞基法反失業 兼任教師要教部踹共
兼任教師未全數納勞基法保障 徐文路:身分切割造成排擠效應

【延伸閱讀】
四萬兼任教師還是法令孤兒 納勞基法注定拖過年?
私校兼任教師21年未調薪 無喪假可請 高教工會籲納勞基法
同工要同酬 不分公私立! 教學工作是勞動 兼任老師納入勞基法!
一場獨漏兼任教師的會議— 研商兼任老師的勞動權益,卻刻意排除兼任教師代表?
兼任教師要同工同酬 赴行政院提五大訴求

這篇文章 【投書】大學兼任教師的苦難,是高教崩壞、不義的象徵 最早出現於 公民行動影音紀錄資料庫

長榮罷工第13天、協商稍有進展 凱道晚會千人響應

2019, July 3 - 18:54
文/公庫記者楊鵑如、圖/公庫記者許詩愷   長榮空服員罷工第13天時(7/2),爭取到與長榮公司的第二次協商。桃園市空服員職業工會7/2時也在當天凱道舉辦晚會,邀請許多支持罷工的空服員家屬及各界團體共同聲援,導演楊雅喆、前環保署副署長詹順貴、議員邱威傑(呱吉)等人也發聲支持罷工,現場千人響應。   桃園市空服員職業工會準備「給總統蔡英文的信」,與南崁長榮總公司罷工現場的空服員連線,一同與現場聲援者折成「紙飛機」射向天空,呼籲政府應出面保障勞工,協助解決勞資爭議,讓罷工落幕。       長榮空服員罷工第13天 協商進度緩慢 呼籲政府協助   晚會現場下起大雨,上千聲援者擠爆凱道雙線道。工會理事廖以勤今日從早上8點及參與勞資協商,協商告一段落後來到晚會報告最新進度。長榮公司針對「不秋後算帳條款」稍有進展,對於27位罷工空服員爭議行為,將「曠職」改為「空班」處理,並由勞資雙方共同推出公正第三方,組成調查小組就本案件進行調查,以作後續處理。細節仍須討論,仍無法簽訂團體協約。   廖以勤說,工會不會拋下任何參與罷工的人,要讓每位會員「有尊嚴的回到天空」,公司仍不肯妥協恢復罷工空服員調薪、年終獎金、員工機票等項目,必須靠工會團結才能達到。「這是一場持久耐力賽,我們已經走到第13天,不可以中途放棄。」     工會理事黃蔓鈴說,參與工會的會員都打破長榮零工會的神話,也創下人數最多、時間最長、影響班次最多的航空業大罷工,共同寫下歷史。   黃提到,長榮空服員在應徵時都會被問「是否支持工會」,若回答支持就不會是應聘上;直到華航罷工後,大家才對工會開始有想像。2016年成立空服工會長榮分會,陸續招募了3000位會員,與公司協商過20次,爭取到保障飛時60小時、天災假及維持《勞基法》35條 由勞工自主排定特休,不再受控於資方。    黃蔓鈴認為,工會其餘訴求皆無大幅進步,去年11月關閉團協管道,今年起進行三次勞資爭議調解失敗,才發起罷工投票,達到9成支持率。6/20發起罷工後,直到6/28公司才提出協商方案,空服員工會同意就其方案簽團體協約,答應簽成後結束罷工;然而6/29進行團協時,公司不認「不秋後算帳條款」,日後恐懲處27名罷工空服員,因此工會為力保所有會員平安回去工作,希望資方應就「工會版不秋後算帳條款」妥協,直至7/2協商也是僵持不下。  

工會理事黃蔓鈴(左)

家屬、律師等各界齊呼支持 反抗資方父權、爭勞權民主   一名罷工空服員的弟弟則說,先前長榮發生一名行動不便的外籍男子在機上如廁,要求空服員「擦屁股事件」,長榮公司第一時間是問「誰流出照片」,顯示高階管理人員的心態並未照顧員工權益,如今面對罷工也是如此。   曾姓空服員的媽媽賴女士表示,5月時女兒就說工會要投票表決是否罷工,自己一開始聽聞也不是很贊成,身為空服員的父母,經常看到女兒工時經常超過12小時,有時候凌晨半夜得協助接送女兒通勤,空服員的工作狀態實際上並非外界所罵的「貪婪公主」。而罷工當天看到媒體報導長榮總經理與地勤同事對空服員的辱罵,感到非常震驚,「這公司的文化怎麼這樣?」,認為應支持罷工。  

曾姓空服員的媽媽賴女士

  「對不起,我們來得太晚了!」律師李宣毅召集義務律師聲援長榮罷工,前天晚上才發起連署,已有百位律師支持,現場也有20幾位律師到場聲援。李律師說,這不只是長榮空服員自己的事情,更是攸關台灣航空產業與台灣全體勞工勞權的事情。他認為前年雖有華航罷工,但因半官股性質促使政府出面解決,長榮罷工是第一次空服員向全面資方爭取自己的權利,更得面對來自各界龐大的壓力。   李宣毅說,沒想到長榮第一次勞資談判,資方因想要懲處、追殺27位合法罷工空服員,拒絕全部的談判,根本是寧願要懲處工會會員也要犧牲台灣航運,不顧股東、員工及旅客的利益,把公司權利放最高點。「長榮公司忘記自己對公共及台灣勞權的責任嗎?」   時代力量黨主席、律師邱顯智表示,《勞資爭議處理法》第55條已規定合法罷工行為對於民、刑事責任免責,但長榮資方為了追殺勞工而不簽下協商,根本沒有道理;反之已有許多學者研究資方在罷工期間有很多不當行為,呼籲勞動部應徹查長榮公司花了多少公關費給媒體,促使媒體一起追殺勞工,揭露媒體名單以示公評。     來自日本的「日本勞動協會」代表則說,最近香港民眾因「反送中條例」把雞蛋砸向暴政的政府機關,希望台灣的民眾應思考將雞蛋砸向長榮公司,爭取勞權。「台灣的罷工將不只影響東亞國家,更影響全世界勞工,一起努力。」    台大社會系副教授、社民黨創辦人范雲表示,長榮公司在罷工期間用「新招募空服員」手段意圖打垮工會,並打破以往傳統將招募男性空服員,完全沒有「性別平等」。「為什麼覺得女人成立工會後,女人不好用了、就把女人當免洗筷拋棄?」她認為長榮公司開始找「好用的男性」或找其他國籍更弱勢的女性,就是欺負女人,「長榮就是父權」。   台北市議員邱威傑則說,台灣勞工一直都很團結、努力的爭取權益,但是資方在20幾年來也不斷進化,利用網路及各種資源攻擊勞方,長榮罷工挺身站出來的2000多位空服員所面對的壓力是過去前所未見的,因此自己一定要出面聲援表達支持。    目前勞資雙方尚未約定第三次協商,空服員工會將持續罷工,發起更多行動尋求支持。          

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What You Don’t Know About Writing Your First (or next) Paper May Shock You

2019, July 3 - 18:13
Why Almost Everything You’ve Learned About Writing Your First ( or next ) Paper Is Wrong

As you are going to learn from looking through any very good research paper example, writing a fantastic paper involves so far more than simply throwing a whole lot of text and citations into a word processor and hoping for the very best. Essay writing service can help you out. If you really need to enhance writing, you must write ofteneven if it’s simply copying a poem or a passage in your journal.

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The very first rule of writing abstracts is to be aware of the rules. Needless to say, whenever you are not able to compose your paper it may still be completed dependent on your standards and requirements by an expert essay writer who cares. You see, the conventions of English essays are somewhat more formulaic than you may think and, in lots of ways, it can be as easy as counting to five.

A period at the conclusion of your very last sentence is all that is required. A topic sentence is among the most well-known methods of opening the https://www.emu.edu.tr/en/programs/695 very first body paragraph. The second sentence is likewise not very specific.

No matter whichever one that you opt to use, you have to be consistent throughout your essay. Thus, you must be vigilant of the on-line essay writing service you decide to work with. The very first step to writing an essay is to determine what type of essay to write.

Indeed, it’s very discouraging not to find the maximum grade only for using the incorrect font or spacing in your essay cover page. Ensure you know the appropriate uses for the most frequent types of punctuation. It can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay.

Upper elementary students will profit from reminders about how to refer to and cite text evidence. Even the most well-known examples need context. The subject of your paper and the selected literature needs to be adjacent.

It’s simple to imagine published authors writing with the best of ease, but actually the practice is equally as difficult for them. In a technical writing course, instructions could expect you to include illustrations or other types of graphicswhatever would ordinarily be utilized in the directions. Additionally, the worth of spell checking written work before submission is necessary for obvious explanations.

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Gossip, Lies and Writing Your First ( or next ) Paper

One of the greatest strategies to deal with it lies in reverse. Before you even begin planning an essay, I’d suggest that you sit down and have a fast think about how you wish to do it. The idea was that by copying great work, we’d recognize decent work.

Correct all errors which you can spot and enhance the general grade of the paper to the best of your ability. Just describe what you need and want your paper appears like and we’ll fulfill your requirements without difficulty. For the time being, you must find something on paper even if you believe it’s horrible.

The very first step is to clarify for yourself what you understand now, as a consequence of your research. Yes, it is going to take some time and delay the beginning of the writing process. The last step in the procedure is to proofread the paper you’ve created.

The issue with supplementary discussion, nevertheless, is that it may hide the true step. When you revise your essay, you’ve got to make sure its organization is totally appropriate to your intended audience, the paper context, and the goal. You might want to start working on the following paper early so you have lots of time for revising.

Sometimes among the largest barriers to writing a research paper is attempting to determine what to write about. To submit a prosperous research paper, you have to understand how to write it. Decide on a topic that you’re already acquainted with and research further into that region to build on your present knowledge.

A History of Writing Your First ( or next ) Paper Refuted

Then you can find out which work has to be done to support exactly that message. Suppose you need to complete the paper on no sleep. You should only give them with the book if you’re contented with it yourself because otherwise it’s disrespectful of their time.

The very first issue to do is give yourself a brief deadline. Then you don’t need to use your for mind for remembering, it’s possible to instead use it in order to think more clearly. Locate a word which you do not understand how to define.

Basically, the essay is wholly organized. Know how your essay is going to be evaluated. Take notes on all essential facts, even when you won’t utilize them in your paper after all.

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Top Choices of Philosophy Term Paper Example

2019, July 3 - 17:10
Introducing Philosophy Term Paper Example

The intent or consequences of an act is not important whether the act is proper. For the reason, the development of equality doesn’t indicate the automated increase of mobility. Thus, do you both a favor and allow it to be interesting!

In order to provide your paper a distinctive touch, it’s wise that you consider a few of the facets of the subject that were overlooked or developing a preceding study. There are lots of examples of word processing software to choose from depending upon your plan and writing demands. With your research paper due in just a little while, it’s important you take the opportunity to make sure that.

The APA style denotes the way of writing research papers. Remember that writing and introduction for a paper isn’t only essential, but it is going to also enable you to provide the reader the sort of information that they require in order to acquire the greatest possible outcomes. Few are worried about the simple fact that using examples term paper can be known as cheating.

The essayonlineservice debut of your term paper is possibly the most essential part of the entire essay. Term Paper IntroductionTerm paper introduction is the very first paragraph in which you should grab the readers’ interest. The paper should begin with a brief introduction which comprises the issue.

Introduction draws the reader in your paper. Thus, your introduction ought to be clear and precise.

The target of your introduction isn’t just to let your reader know what your paper is all about, but also to justify why it’s very important to them to find out more about. A fantastic research paper introduction should make your reader feel like he’s in addition to the essay topic you’re going to discuss. Below are some quick suggestions on writing a fantastic introduction for your research paper.

Philosophy Term Paper Example Options

Some students find it so hard to compose the introduction paragraph they first compose the remainder of the essay. Because academic manners of writing are referred to creative writing too. Put simply, it is a sentence that states your thesis.

Writing a paper does not need to be a trying experience. Naturally, to compose a fantastic introduction you have to read an example, so here you are. Introduction sets the stage for the remainder of your paper and the way it fits within the.

Philosophy Term Paper Example Can Be Fun for Everyone

It shows you the principal points you will need to follow and take into consideration when writing your paper to be successful in it. Take be aware that although it’s supplied for free, you might wind up paying for it if you’re idle. You must find another person to do the assessment for you in case you believe you aren’t.

Life, Death and Philosophy Term Paper Example

It’s very difficult to meet all the high-level requirements determined by contemporary colleges and universities. Students, but do not find the hidden risks. Evidently, philosophy is among the toughest and spontaneous disciplines and must be really interested in humanities if he would like to devote much time to this area of study.

The Hidden Truth About Philosophy Term Paper Example

Accordingly, in case you chose to cover informative article, we’re prepared to supply you the complete most advantageous terms! You could also state what kind of approach it is you will use in your paper for the full discussion of your topic. By including a number of the outstanding information regarding this issue in the debut, you are going to be in a position to draw readers.

But What About Philosophy Term Paper Example?

In that case, keep in mind that you may at a subsequent stage must compress your introduction. It’ll be disorienting and difficult the very first time you do it, but it is going to get easier once you learn the fundamentals. An excellent way to begin is by producing a compelling and creative title.

Distinct facets of sociological theories will donate to the new means of sociology development and inspiring society. This theory is one of the essential concepts of predictive persuasion. Political philosophy can help to understand the essence of politics from all possible sides, that is the reason why the discipline is worth attention.

The outcome is going to be a cohesive paper that flows nicely from 1 section in the next. True, such sort of assignment for a term paper takes a scrupulous strategy, time and confidence that you’re doing it right. From a good example term paper, you’re able to learn many essential things.

Many are highly-reputed. We imagine that should they would return, the previous conditions would be restored. Because this form of academic assignment includes several pieces.

The Do’s and Don’ts of Philosophy Term Paper Example

There are a couple of recommendations that can enable you to compose a strong introduction, arousing interest and encouraging the reader to read the remainder of your work. Next tips will reveal to you just how to fulfill the goal of research paper introduction and remove the creative mess. This expert manual can help to become familiarized with all critical suggestions associated with an introduction of a research project on mass communication.

The main aim of any rationale is to present the prospective reader with food for thought stressing the importance of the explored subject. Understandably, you might find it challenging to have a trustworthy company to provide the ideal example of philosophy in life essay at a pocket-friendly speed. Road mapping along the way, or so the reader is aware of what’s happening.

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Life After Example of College Research Paper Outline

2019, July 3 - 17:02

All the ideal research paper examples begin with an excellent research paper outline. You may only understand how to do a research paper correctly once you have thoroughly understood the topic. It is not a mystery.

Research papers can be quite scary initially, but there’s a secret weapon that may help you overcome a number of that fearThe Outline. If you’re going to be conducting your own research, like through a survey or a scientific experiment, you need to outline the precise process that you want to use. A systematic approach will definitely assist you to produce a brilliant research paper.

The Lost Secret of Example of College Research Paper Outline

Overview A critical facet of the scientific procedure is the reporting of new benefits in scientific journals as a way to disseminate that information to the bigger community of scientists. To illustrate all the concerns and previously provided comments, you may look through some of the most obvious benefits of our company. Although there’s a wide range of social inequalities, gender discrimination http://www.sjsu.edu/ is the largest issue among the others.

What Is So Fascinating About Example of College Research Paper Outline?

Term papers ought to be the end result of 11-14 weeks of work and activity. The main goal of it is to support your primary aim. The practice of creating an order is a simple and simple one.

What Does Example of College Research Paper Outline Mean?

You always have to note the info about data which you have found to utilize in your outline. The typical research paper is an intricate document that’s often between 15 and 40 pages in length, based on this issue and class requirements. A raw data must go in the appendix.

A thesis is quite a serious kind of academic writing. When you begin your academic paper, you should thoroughly understand what sort of essay you want to finish. Your essay needs to be logical.

Attempting to devise a structure for your essay may be one of the toughest pieces of the writing process. A lot of academic writing has the exact structural guidelines, reflective essays included. Writing creative reflective essay can add to the growth of your critical thinking abilities.

Each style has its very own distinctive characteristics and peculiarities. The short article covers its most important elements and supplies valuable examples. Choose a topic for which you can discover a manageable quantity of information.

Life, Death and Example of College Research Paper Outline

Thus, a synthesis paper outline will assist you in avoiding errors like having weak thesis statement which doesn’t explicitly state your claim. It is possible to also describe the range of your research. By posing your subject for a question you can more easily recognize the key concepts or keywords to be applied in your research.

The perfect way to acquire a comprehension of the APA outline format is to examine examples. Select the variant which you like the most to fulfill the needs of the 10 page research paper outline format. A superb outline is a significant element in writing a fantastic paper.

You may adhere to the structure of the template to produce your own outline. You could also see speech outline. Usually, an outline resembles an elongated plan, arranged in sections.

To write this kind of outline, you’ll also need 10 pages for making notes. You don’t need to compose the entire anecdote in your outline, but you need to write down a concept of how you need to start out. You might also see chapter outline.

Ruthless Example of College Research Paper Outline Strategies Exploited

Explain the way that it supports the point you’re making. If quality work is all you want, you should look at giving us an opportunity to follow you and supply you with college essay help that will provide you with value for each penny you pay. Leading quality for a moderate price has turned into a reality now!

Sooner or later, you are going to find that the whole research paper examples will allow you to start and get you moving in the proper direction for you to accomplish the finest possible mark you are able to. Also, you can get a research paper from our services! When you know the best place to turn, you’re going to be able to begin a research paper effortlessly.

The name states it allresearch paper. You might also see tentative outlines. The last step in the procedure is to proofread the paper you’ve created.

The Ideal Approach for Example of College Research Paper Outline

An extensive review of the used literature is an excellent way to spell out the value of your own work. Students’ debts keep increasing and it’s not useful to constantly require them to obtain something to be able to prepare for their exams. Nobody will analyze a partially plagiarized research proposal, as it’s supposed to promote a great beginning to your upcoming career.

If more students start choosing the colleges offering them the ideal price, more schools will be made to consider whether their costs are excessively inflated to keep a healthy institution. When you are concerned about writing research paper, it can cause you to be stressed and not to have the ability to perform in the simplest way throughout different regions of your life. 1 such assignment which you might wind up facing a couple of times throughout grade school and college is the reflection essay.

What Does Example of College Research Paper Outline Mean?

Make sure you addressed the principal question of your research in the introduction and your readers don’t see it for the very first time. By taking a look at a ready-made research example, you receive an idea about how you are likely to work around your research. Now you know how to begin your research paper, you’re probably thinking about how to keep going.

The topic method makes it simple that you rearrange your ideas as you are writing. Utilizing proposal examples is an excellent method to learn from somebody else’s experience and make an outstanding powerful proposal. Ask whether the interviewee has any questions to ask before beginning.

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The Good, the Bad and Writing a Science Research Paper High School

2019, July 3 - 17:02
Writing a Science Research Paper High School Secrets

When there are several diverse alternatives to select from, most customers want to know more about a few main types. You can also obtain expert help at a little cost. In addition, editing services are much less expensive than custom sample writing.

New Step by Step Roadmap for Writing a Science Research Paper High School

A teacher can’t possibly give that lots of students the individualized attention they will need to better their writing. High school teachers may teach students from other grades during the day. Each student will subsequently pick a specific model they’d love to construct.

For instance, you can acquire high school essay samples totally free online to provide you with certain skills you want to compose your essay competently. Every year, they find that the report called the research paper is the part of the science fair project where they learn the most. Whenever you begin to compose a research paper you will understand that there’s a wonderful assortment of middle school research paper topics.

The New Fuss About Writing https://eros.usgs.gov/sites/all/files/external/eros/u112/2005%20Geographic%20Information%20Science%20Center%20for%20Excellence%20%28GIScCE%29%20Collaboration%20Pamphlet.pdf a Science Research Paper High School

In some instances, a two-or-three paragraph conclusion could possibly be appropriate. To begin, you will need a great topic and a strong focus to be able to receive your paper outline rolling. A paper is always simpler to write if you’re interested in this issue, and you’re going to be more motivated to do in-depth research and compose a paper that genuinely covers the full subject.

It’s also important to communicate to your dedicated teachers closely. In spite of the simple fact there are many high school essay topics one would choose, it might take them a lengthy time due to uncertainty. Before you commence writing a single word of your paper, you first will need to understand what your thesis will be.

A Startling Fact about Writing a Science Research Paper High School Uncovered

In most instances, it’s not possible to complete every task in time. Otherwise, you are likely wondering what you could do in order to acquire your research paper done in time and minimize your odds of failing the class. Even in case you have the time to actually dive into a research paper, you might still wind up struggling.

Top Writing a Science Research Paper High School Secrets

Some papers need an abstract, experiment techniques, and results, for example. If you are not certain, we can help you in both determining if a plan is essential and the content of the program. Even a very brief paper is the end result of an approach.

It’s a lot easier to compose a strong introduction once the remainder of your paper is finished, or at least thoroughly outlined, as stated by the University of Southern California Libraries. This paper samples are done by professionals and can vividly demonstrate how to deliver a very good paper. It isn’t always simple to be in a position to uncover a research paper that will fulfill your requirements perfectly.

Research papers also incorporate writing a proposal. An individual should realize that every Research Paper is a sophisticated writing because it must contain distinctive research and distinctive idea. Writing a research paper can be an intimidating chore.

How to Get Started with Writing a Science Research Paper High School?

If you writeRecent research indicates that or Many scholars think that, you’re making a claim. Following that, speak with the professor about a few of your general thoughts and the potential research directions you’re contemplating pursuing. Furthermore, composing an essay is a far greater device of learning compared to reading as an example, because of the simple fact that in case you have the capacity to cover precisely what you have actually discovered and checked out, it indicates you’ve recognized the material perfectly.

You might be the type of writer who writes an introduction first to be able to explore your own thinking on the subject. As soon as you own a feeling of the principal players, you can begin to do searches based on author name together with key words or topics. Whichever topic you select, don’t forget the principal thing!

After, the author will look for the particular info to earn your paper appear clever and convincing. You will realize that the paper we deliver isn’t an old text which has been a bit adapted to your requirements. The best sort of essay starts with the ideal form of topic, so take time to choose something which works for you.

Once you’ve got a concept of what you wish to write about, ensure that your topic is neither broad nor narrow. In any instance, you will have to select a subject of interest and tackle some part of it over the duration of your paper. You can proceed and divide the research into phrases to check at every aspect keenly.

The next step is to produce the research question. Key findings can help you to produce the discussion for each crucial finding.

For you to compose a superb and intriguing small business research paper, your choice of topic has to be in your field of interest. You just need to earn a collection of the proper topic you would desire. If your topic is too broad, you won’t have the ability to focus your paper since there is simply too much info to cover.

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Why No One Is Talking About Writing an Analytical Research Paper

2019, July 3 - 16:43
What Does Writing an Analytical Research Paper Mean?

A great outline is easily the most crucial step in writing a superb paper. Regardless of what it is you are expected to analyze, a crucial analysis essay has to be written in according to a collection of rules that will make sure you have right the structure and content of the analysis paper. Writing a descriptive research paper calls for the writer to portray a stunning picture or place it in simple words which make the readers feel like they exist in the authentic scene rather than simply reading it.

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The Chronicles of Writing an Analytical Research Paper

When writing a paper working with the argumentative strategy, also sometimes referred to as the persuasive strategy, you make a statement proposing only 1 side of an argument. Once you’are through with it, you may then consist of several sub-points under the main subject of the paragraph that you will handle. Underlining topic sentences to see whether they truly do outline the argument is helpful.

Research of any kind is https://www.kaust.edu.sa/ a procedure to discover information. The recommedations section is quite revealing because, as stated earlier, your instructor is going to have a great idea of just how much work that you put in the case from the caliber of your recommendations.

The Writing an Analytical Research Paper Game

Expertise in writing All writers have been in the business for quite some time. Writing in college often requires the shape of persuasion convincing others that you’ve got an interesting, logical perspective on the subject you’re studying. Our writers are the finest in the area!

All About Writing an Analytical Research Paper

You will receive your paper in due time, with amazing content and at an affordable price. What you should do is to fill out the purchase form, make a payment, and in a couple minutes, you will receive your individual essay helper. It’s possible to treat our on-line essay service as an internet library tailored to your distinct needs.

You may always compose the conclusion initially and the introduction last. https://masterpapers.info/ In general provisions, research proposals try to demonstrate that the authors are aware of what they are doing. For instance, you may be requested to compose a report on attended seminar or conference.

The usual issue is that people typically do not have sufficient time to finish all assignments by the deadline. Since you can start to see, as soon as you begin thinking about it, one simple question may lead to a tremendous chain of questions. It is very important to pick a topic you can live with because you will shell out a great deal of time working on the topic.

The Fight Against Writing an Analytical Research Paper

Before you begin your essay or research paper, you should get familiar with some overall APA rules. Whether you require custom term paper writing or a typical 5-paragraph essay, EssayStudio can help you. Writing a research paper can be hard.

You have to give a bibliography for all of the sources that you used to ready the essay. Your essay has to be logical and simple to read. No matter the choice, it has to be adhered to throughout any specific essay.

Nevertheless, even though it seems pretty easy, a reflective essay still has a particular structure. An analytical essay isn’t a summary! It is one of the most commonly written essays among the.

Sometimes utilizing a hook statement can be effective, but it’s not required. CreatingWriting Strategies including clustering ideas, drawing diagrams, and arranging a road map can help you visualize the stages that you should map out to create a strong paper. An excellent way to begin is by making a compelling and creative title.

There are several companies who offer you to get the pre written papers on your topic, so you might use it like a sample, but you maynot use any sentence with that paper because it will appear plagiarized immediately. There are lots of paper templates to pick from, but the majority of the time your instructor will require a specific format for the entire class to follow. You’ve got to supply a completely original paper to reveal your competence in a subject.

If you pick a topic that isn’t of interest to you, it is going to show in your paper. Your paper is only going to be like the outline you write for it. Generally speaking, the analytical paper starts with a research question.

Ok, I Think I Understand Writing an Analytical Research Paper, Now Tell Me About Writing an Analytical Research Paper!

To begin with, you will need to understand how to conduct legal research. It gives you the opportunity to think seriously about some issue. Most of all, a student must select a subject, which he or she’s comfortable with.

Research papers are meant to demonstrate a student’s academic understanding of a subject. Writing is among the toughest and most rewarding of all scholarly pursuits.

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南藝大校長續任案 師生抗議:突襲表決、追殺教職員

2019, July 3 - 13:31

文/公庫記者洪育增

台南藝術大學校長詹景裕在6月13日的校務會議中通過連任,接著卻疑似對教職員秋後算帳,校方18日發信通知終止音像藝術學院代理院長孫松榮及總務長吳永毅的職務,而孫吳兩人先前才對該場會議程序表達疑慮。由於事發至今詹景裕不願與師生當面討論,因此南藝大師生昨(2)日赴教育部陳情,希望教育部能介入調查詹景裕連任案及孫松榮免職案,保障師生權益。

校長續任案校方早知道  資訊前一天才公告
南藝大學生童詠瑋表示,校方早在6/5就收到教育部的「評鑑報告書」要求,需依據「辦理國立大學校長續任評鑑作業要點」第6點規定,在2個月內先向教育部提出報告書,完成續任校長評鑑和評鑑結果報告書,再經過教育部部長核准後,校方才能以適當的方式,將報告書展示給有權參與校長續任案者,作為投票討論等參考依據。

但童詠瑋提到,校方在6/6僅發放電子郵件通知全校教職員及學生6/13要進行校務會議,沒有提及任何關於校長遴選案的內容。直到6/12下午四點多,才再次發放兩封電子郵件,一封附上會議議程資料,告知隔日(6/13)下午2點校務會議要同時進行校長續任投票,另一封則是公告「詹景裕校長續任校長專區網頁」上線,全校師生可自行上網瀏覽資料。

在當天會議開始前,有些學生想爭取入場旁聽,校方卻以教師們意見不同為由,將學生擋在會議室外,而當學生們試圖從鄰近大樓的2樓窗戶旁觀,校方竟當場把會議室窗簾拉上,不讓學生有機會參與校務會議。

會議過程諸多問題  校方恐有違法疑慮
依據《大學法》第15條規定,參與會議的學生比例不得低於全體會議人數的十分之一。南藝大學生林秉君也提到,南藝大校務會議規則比照該法條,因此現場必須要有11名學生代表出席;但這些學生代表也都是前一天才知道當天要進行校長遴選,同時,校方沒有針對學生代表的身分進行查核,名單上的11名學生代表中有1位已經休學未出席,因此實際參與的學生代表人數僅有10人,明顯低於法律規定,已經造成違法事實。

童詠瑋認為,校方處理「議案通知」與「校長續任專區資料公開」等程序都非常倉促,不僅無法讓全校師生有足夠的時間完整閱讀資料,也無法讓參與校務會議的學生代表在不到一天的時間以內,彙整學生們的意見,導致投票過程形同橡皮圖章,無法真正代表校內師生意見,藐視關心這件事的師生權益。

南藝大藝術創作理論研究所博士班所長龔卓軍痛批,整起案件不僅投票程序不合法,就連事後針對贊成擱置案的職員進行秋後算帳,也違反行政倫理。

南藝大藝術創作理論研究所博士班所長龔卓軍進一步說明,自己當天也是校務會議代表之一,他當時主動在會議中提出「擱置動議」,希望這項公布不到24小時的校長續任案能先讓師生有充分時間閱讀資料後,再進行投票表決,現場音像藝術學院代理院長孫松榮,以及總務長吳永毅附和贊同。

龔卓軍指出,當天不僅擱置動議當場被否決,現場其他校務會議代表仍在進行討論,甚至關於校長續任遴選的影像報告還沒播放完畢,擔任主席的副校長黃翠梅即宣布開放投票表決,接著在完成投票後5天(6/18),校方發放電子郵件通知,終止孫松榮及吳永毅的職務。龔卓軍痛批,整起案件不僅投票程序不合法,就連事後針對贊成擱置案的職員進行秋後算帳,也違反行政倫理。

代理院長無故被終止職務  師生齊聲援
被免職的音像藝術學院代理院長孫松榮表示,近日校方向全校發放公開信函,針對他個人的終止職務案提出說明,他也以一一作出相關回應,他提到,院務會議中已針對終止職務案提出反對意見呈報校方,但是校方也沒有正面回應。

孫松榮說,個人免職其實是小問題,但詹景裕用行政裁量權,越過教育部對於代理院長的法規解釋,這種將個人意志高於行政及相關法令的解釋方法,在在顯示詹景裕想把所有對個人具有阻礙的教師及行政人員,一一排除在外。

孫松榮認為,詹景裕用行政裁量權,越過教育部對於代理院長的法規解釋,在在顯示詹景裕想把所有對個人具有阻礙的教師及行政人員,一一排除在外

南藝大音像研究所助理教授吳永毅進一步指出,校方聲稱音像藝術學院4個月以上無故不進行新任院長遴選即是違法,因此終止孫松榮的代理院長職務。但其實孫松榮從今年2月就任至今,尚未進行新任院長遴選的這段期間,主要在調查前任院長留下的財務問題。

吳永毅說,這位與詹景裕有裙帶關係的前任院長就職期間有119筆、總計約30多萬的財務經費,因為不明緣故而被校方主計室收回,因此孫松榮想調查清楚財務狀況,再行交接,殊不知卻被校方以各種理由認定終止職務。吳永毅痛批,詹景裕不調查財務狀況就算了,還將調查財務的代理院長解職,甚至在未經院務會議討論投票的情況下,已經安排其他學院的教職員擔任音像藝術學院的新任院長。

校長神隱  未出面與師生會談
在6/18校方終止孫松榮的職務後,音像藝術學院師生也在6/19、6/20召開相關說明會與公開會談,希望能和校方充分討論校長續任案及代理院長免職案,但結果不是遭到秘書室阻擋,就是被校長詹景裕爽約。直到昨日(7/2)詹景裕仍以電子郵件向師生喊話,闡述自己近年來推動的校務成果,並表明只接受由學生代表出席的協商會議。童詠瑋認為,校方人事案程序的不正義,其實就是忽視了校園自治,學生才是校園主體。

台灣高等教育產業工會組織部主任林伯儀指出,師生在大學的校務會議中當然有代表權,如果只因為投票過程中校長感到不滿意,事後就用莫須有的罪名終止教職員職務,管理者就是把大學當作自身資產,而非教育殿堂。林伯儀痛批,教育部只要拿出對待台大校長遴選案三分之一的嚴謹度,那麼絕對無法縱容南藝大校長遴選案,或者其他校園重大事件在會議前一天才發出通知與相關資料。

抗議師生也向教育部指控,詹景裕在就任期間產生六大黑箱,包括財務黑箱、裙帶黑箱、治理黑箱、行蹤黑箱、自肥黑箱、濫權黑箱。

陳情書強調南藝大六項黑箱  教育部回應將調查疑點
前來抗議的南藝大師生也向教育部指控,詹景裕在就任期間產生六大黑箱,包括財務黑箱、裙帶黑箱、治理黑箱、行蹤黑箱、自肥黑箱、濫權黑箱,並向教育部高教司科長吳志偉遞上連署書與陳情書,希望教育部針對代理院長免職案及校長續任案進行調查。

在場師生也詢問教育部,日後是否能當面聽取抗議師生的意見,而非透過詹景裕及校方資料瞭解該項議題。吳志偉回應,釐清疑點之前不會發下詹景裕的續任聘書,教育部已瞭解抗議師生的陳情內容,日後會要求校方向師生進行公開說明,教育部也會督導校方,並多方聽取意見。

抗議師生向教育部高教司科長吳志偉遞上連署書與陳情書,希望教育部針對代理院長免職案及校長續任案進行調查。

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The History of Biology Igcse Paper 6 Revision Refuted

2019, July 2 - 22:28

You truly can deal with your enzymes. But they don’t have a nucleus. Many kinds of enzymes need fuel to get the job done.

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Green plants and algae utilize light energy to create their own food. As you’re reading this informative article, your cells continue to be actively working. There’s no limit regarding how many child branches or hierarchical levels it’s possible to create.

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It’s highly changeable and adaptable, therefore there is not universal vaccine against it. The idea behind vaccines is they mimic the genuine viral invasion. The most frequent fungal diseases have an effect on the epidermis.

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The Appeal of Theoretical Physicist

2019, July 2 - 22:27
The New Angle On Theoretical Physicist Just Released

If you study physics, you’re likely to learn whether you will need to pursue it further, and you’ll receive a better grasp of the options within the field that are readily available to you. After you’ve defined your terms, you can begin your argument. In fact, the majority of the time that it seems pretty slow.

Thus, a model can be a number of unique things. A lot of the worlds gross domestic product is dependent on his work. Thus, the thought that we reside in a simulation might easily be considered far-fetched.

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Daytrading eminis is not any different in this regard. The character of dark matter is currently among the best mysteries in science. To put it differently consciousness is basically a phenomenon of information.

Aside from practical applications, there’s simple pleasure of understanding the way the universe works. He certainly was not in the ideal shape, but his mind was clearly concentrated on the issue. Any explanation of the essence of space and time is sure to be intimidating.

Scientists are perhaps the most influential men and women in the world these days. Some scientists believe EmDrive technology is impossible, since it doesn’t appear to adhere to our present-day comprehension of the way the universe is supposed to do the job. Yes, sometimes physicists work on the incorrect things for the proper reasons, and at times they work on the most suitable things for the incorrect factors.

These days, the notion that we are living in a multiverse is now popular in the foundations of physics. http://usfsm.edu/ The main reason why is that a god should be able to supersede nature. To understand how it could have created itself from nothing, we must consider quantum mechanics.

Physicists have issues with large numbers. Not everybody is prepared to give up on supersymmetry or maybe to pay off bets. Two theoretical physicists are lost at the surface of a mountain.

Theoretical Physics is similar to a sky scraper. Neutrinos have a lot of peculiarities, Gratta states. The particle is extremely elusive and unstable.

It is a cool new means to study photons,” he states. As there are infinitely many universes to arrange the particles, a few of these universes will be quite similar to our own, just that eventually some initially tiny deviation will cause an alternate history. If you own a lot of particles acting on a single particle, you’ve got to add up the contribution of all of the individual particles.

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Distinct causes lead to a number of outcomes. It’s not especially bad, although it could use more detail. There’s just one problem.

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Particle theorists talk a huge game. For one, it’s the most abundant particle of matter. He does not get medals.

Observation is, however, always employed as the last proof. Science has a large issue with this. It may be required for experiments designed to determine physical constants.

Proposed theories usually have never been tested. Physicists apply their comprehension of physics in many industries, dependent on their precise region of expertise. He may also be tasked with educating students who are studying physics.

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The narrower your topic, the simpler it’ll be to limit the entire number of sources you want to read as a way to locate an outstanding survey of the material. Among the reasons so many services and sectors are searching to employ physics graduates is that there’s a shortage of highly numerate and analytical people within the workplace. You may have experienced making a list of what you would like in an apartment, or a home, or a partner.

Gravitational waves are going to have far different bands in 20 decades. Construing up one of an endless number of multiverse variants has no sensible chance. Google’s Project Glass could possibly be getting plenty of buzz now, but Kaku claims the wave of the future is going to be one step further in the shape of internet-enabled contact lenses.

There are a great deal of branches of physics depending on the length scale a physicist want to study. A group of theoretical physicists from Oxford University in the united kingdom has demonstrated that life and reality can’t be merely simulations generated by a substantial extraterrestrial computer. Now top scientists are beginning to return to China and back to India.

1 approach to learn the cosmological constant is using the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Essentially, Alicki and Fannes say you can link together any range of quantum batteries, permitting you to extract all the stored energy in one massive gulp (pictured above). On the face of the earth the distance is all about 4000 miles.

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The 30-Second Trick for What Is a Theory

2019, July 2 - 22:27
Definitions of What Is a Theory

The bitcoin community is completely batshit crazy. The trace ought to be nearly invisible and simple to transfer https://papernow.org/non-plagiarized-essay and retain, he argues. Which brings me to another reason Christians should adore the Big Bang Theory.

Humans weren’t replaced by robots. Relationships and societal connections is among the main facets of life. It needs to be honest with itself about what it does and does not know.

Put simply, their work evolves with the end-user at the middle, from beginning to finish. When an individual gets sick, unless he’s rich, he won’t secure necessary medical treatments. Others are laid off at their places of work and decide to prepare a Home Based Business to bring in income For several other men and women, they would just like to be their own boss and try out some ideas which they have.

The experiments and science described below are intended to attempt to work out what happened previously. It has a problem with causality. On these points, it continues to make progress, but it is notyet settled.

Getting in a position to replicate results are the foundation for scientific theory. Absence of available evidence” doesn’t signify they didn’t exist in the very first spot. A conspiracy theory isn’t any different than an event an attorney presents in court.

There’s really only one large organization in the entire worldthat disputes climate science and the truth of human-induced global climate change, which is the Republican Party. Somehow innovators found their https://summer.gwu.edu/precollege way to asking the proper question in the proper way. For the authentic innovator has to be in some sense a legislator.

Many things exist that we maynot prove exist. Which is exactly what’s in evidence once we examine the proof. An excellent brief functions as a contract between all parties.

Now, each one would be amazed by an individual interview. Five, the reply will appear. There’s no question it exists.

In science for something to be proven it has to be proved over and over again with the very same results before it’ll even be considered. For these theories particularly, among many more, measurements and observations that were performed to test these theories have been supremely profitable. Modern scientific practice is mainly focused on constructive theories, whilst meditation is centered on developing the type of insights that develop into first principals.

Obviously, it turned into a huge hoax to pull off. In other words, there’s more than enough evidence for a god of some type. The main reason why is that a god should be able to supersede nature.

There’s solid science backing the notion that mindfulness, the notion of living in the present time, has compelling benefits for both bodily and mental wellbeing. If however you were attempting to advance a theory that could assist the additional maturation of the needs of great leaders so as to serve humanity better, I think you failed. It is possible to share ideas in your work.

The test statistic is only a count of the amount of successes in selecting the four cups. The results weren’t due to chance. Essentially, it’s an explanation of some part of the pure world which has been substantiated through repeated experiments or testing.

Should it, since it is based on the same sort of construction as we are, the new organisms could also develop precisely the same DNA patterns. In the exact same way your cells must constantly recycle proteins, mitochondrial function has to be sustained via the creation of new mitochondria. Thus a light particle will behave as a particle or a wave based on what the observer believes light is.

The question we aren’t able to answer with a whole lot of certainty is why we should exercise in the very first place so as to attain health benefits across our lifespan. Most men and women believe it will end in a political agreement between attending nations, but there’s doubt if it is going to have the binding capability to cause real shift. In the procedure for living your life, things have a method of resolving themselves.

Following that, you can suppose, utilizing the notion of a hackathon, that the principal aim is innovation through tangible evidence where the potential company and revenue isn’t important. Then, with the measurement plan which you put in place from the beginning, quantify success. A growing number are implementing actions research papers across their value chains to decrease their emissions.

Intervention science is a means of devising the ideal strategy to boost the delivery of healthcare in a predetermined setting. Theory of Super strings also results in the spin 2 particles referred to as GRAVITONS. Not even the Universe can be considered an isolated system because it doesn’t have any boundary!

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What You Don’t Know About Isotonic Definition Biology Could Be Costing to More Than You Think

2019, July 2 - 22:26
Choosing Isotonic Definition Biology Is Simple

Such a Web page is reported to be dynamic. https://grademiners.com/resume-help Synthetic methods want to try and get the most out of the incorporation of all materials utilized in the process in the previous product. Thus, despite several years and lots of models, some important concept appears to be missing.

All the principal regions of the cell function with one another to keep the plant active. As cells shed water, they lose the capability to function or divide. Because you would like your blood cells to sit down in an isotonic solution.

In the instance of a hypertonic solution, there’s more solute away from the cell than inside the cell. It is likely to swell up. In that circumstance, it’s known as a plasmolysed cell.

Chemistry is a crucial measure of compatibility that genuinely includes six unique elements. The other kind of transport is called secondary active transport. Each time a specific area of the DNA strand duplicates, the variety of genes in a chromosome increases.

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An isotonic solution is one where the concentration of solutes is the very same both inside and outside the cell. Hydrophobic colloids can be ready in water only if they’re stabilized somehow. At this time, the quantity of solute and solvent (water) are equal on both sides of the membrane.

An isotonic solution has an identical concentration of solutes both inside and beyond the cell. 5 dextrose isn’t pyrogenic i.e. it http://www.phoenix.edu/courses/iscom305.html does not result in excessive heat within the body. We say the solution is now saturated if we’ve added the largest possible amount of solutes to the solvent.

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There’s no role for hypertonic saline in these types of patients. The concentration of water and salt taken out of the blood by the kidneys is controlled by a portion of the brain known as the hypothalamus. There’s excellent evidence that sequential infection raises the chance of developing DHF.

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Concentration of solutions True solutions are described with regard to their concentration that can be indicated in a number of ways. Nature likes equality which is apparent in regards to solutions. Although in science, the forms of science are called branches’.

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It’s the overall number of solute molecules that is critical. The absorbance of light because of the electrons excitation can be measured using the direct absorption procedures. From time to time, the molecules are simply too big to easily flow upon the plasma membranes or dissolve in the water so they can be filtered via the membrane.

The procedure for dialysis takes advantage of a molecules capacity to diffuse across a semipermeable membrane to be able to separate big and compact molecules. Solutes able to freely cross the membrane do not have an effect on tonicity since they will forever in equal concentrations on either side of the membrane. It is every time a substance crosses a semipermeable membrane so as to balance the concentrations of a different substance.

The Isotonic Definition Biology Cover Up

Moreover, it’s prefered to provide hypertonic solutions by means of a central line on account of the hypertonic solution being vesicant on the veins and the danger of infiltration. There are a number of reasons for somebody to go into cardiac arrest. Although the cell is the fundamental unit of all life, there’s nothing basic about it.

Biology-related jobs are especially competitive, it is therefore valuable, and on occasion crucial, to find practical knowledge in the place. Sometimes the most fundamental concepts are created so complex during nursing school. Hypertonic drinks may also be taken during exercise to satisfy the energy requirements.

Get the Scoop on Isotonic Definition Biology Before You’re Too Late

Crystalloids like saline solutions include a solution of molecules which could dissolve in water. A solution can be labeled one of 3 ways when it’s compared to some other solution. Hypotonic solution is just one of two solutions which has a decrease concentration of a solute.

Don’t forget, Dextrose is only a sugar, which can be readily absorbed by the human body and turned into energy. term paper writing The main reason is because when the dextrose was absorbed, there’s only plain water left. They is placed in a blender and blended well to obtain a syrup solution.

The Ultimate Isotonic Definition Biology Trick

Since everything would like to reach equilibrium, the one thing that may flow to create equal concentrations is water. Basically, it is constantly comparing two solutions to each other and determining if more water is needed on one side or the other. While it is the best option for rehydrating your body, drinking excessive amounts can cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body.

This practice is known as the stretch reflex. Of all Of the structural elements of your body which limit your flexibility, it’s the just one which you can stretch safely. Synovial joints are the absolute most movable kind of joint found in the body.

The fact there are quite a few black ravens supports the assumption. Osmosis affects cells differently based on the kind of solution in question. Biology majors learn to gather evidence to look at a hypothesis.

If You Read Nothing Else Today, Read This Report on Isotonic Definition Biology

Diffusion is due to the random motion of molecules and does not need any net input of energy to occur. A range of factors in the body influence the procedure, for example, viscosity of plasma, the fluid part of blood. Your measurements might have been wrong.

Tonicity is among these. It will become flaccid, but could still function 3. Get to understand a few and you’ll see.

這篇文章 What You Don’t Know About Isotonic Definition Biology Could Be Costing to More Than You Think 最早出現於 公民行動影音紀錄資料庫

The Ultimate What Is a Variable in Math Trick

2019, July 2 - 22:25
The Characteristics of What Is a Variable in Math

The outcome of the operations are set to missing values. JMeter stipulates a tool that will help you construct function calls for various built-in functions, which you may then copy-paste. The actual data is called thetesting set.

The What Is a Variable in Math Pitfall

You add terms having the exact same variables due to the fact that they represent the exact same quantities. To begin with, the probability density function has to be normalized. It’s the coefficient in the expression 5x.

A system of equations is a selection of a couple of equations with the exact same set of unknowns. A cubic function is one of the most troublesome kinds of polynomial equation you might want to solve by hand. Independent variables are values that could be changed in a specific equation or experiment.

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Algebra Expressions are required in computer apps that are written to process real world scenarios. Most equations are more difficult to solve and you must simplify the equation before you’re able to observe the solution. You may select unique variables to customize these Equations Worksheets for your requirements.

Our lesson planning worksheet will be able to help you estimate. Variables have many beneficial applications, but all of these are when a very best answer should be found. Algebra is far more interesting when things are somewhat more real.

Finding the Best What Is a Variable in Math

To https://dornsife.usc.edu/cwphd
put it differently the parenthesis doesn’t signify that f is multiplied by x. Additionally, the bar heights in the histogram are extremely determined by the option of bin edges and bin widths. But also take a look at the bottom to obtain any new entries.

Since c occurs in a term that’s a constant use of x, it’s known as the constant term. Well, not every rectangle is likely to have the very same length and width, thus we can use an algebraic expression with variables to be a symbol of the region and then plug in the right numbers to evaluate it. See how often it’s possible to address the variable x in 1 minute.

Top What Is a Variable in Math Secrets

For that reason, it remains constant. Indeterminate values are a little different. Treat both cases separate.

Standard deviation can be hard to interpret as a single number by itself. It may be used to locate unknown numbers. If we don’t know it’s linear, it is helpful to plot numerous points to clearly find the curve of the graph.

The Hidden Secret of What Is a Variable in Math

Generally mathematical usage, however, term isn’t restricted to additive expressions. It’s a true thing, and you may have a use for it. Since a variable reflects a quantity which could take on various values, its use has come to be a crucial portion of nearly all disciplines which use mathematical models to symbolize the actual world.

The dependent variable is the quantity of plant development. Likewise a premium is paid to obtain a choice to purchase or sell the underlying, at some time later on, if it’s favourable for the option buyer to execute the choice. For instance, the rate of incoming phone calls differs in line with the good time of day.

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You may use the exact same syntax in playbooks. As a consequence, HTML math employs the ISO entity names for symbols instead of the TeX names. Utilize wrapper functions to produce use of one or more of these constructs as variable functions.

Matrices don’t have to explicitly dimensioned, and MATLAB makes it possible for you to raise the magnitude of a matrix as you work. Variables are not anything more than a placeholder. All JavaScript variables must be recognized with unique names.

Our programs take your choices and create the questions you desire, on your computer, as opposed to selecting problems from a prewritten set. As soon as it is undoubtedly solving many problems that most other ML algorithms cannot, additionally it has made many men and women that are just beginning in the area and many who have been in the area for a lengthy time believe it can be employed to fix any issue provided that you stack up enough layers and neurons. It is essential that your students understand the difference.

It should become your objective to know all these concepts ahead of the exam. For instance, if you take a look at salaries for everybody in a particular company, including everyone from the student intern to the CEO, the normal deviation might be rather large. Take a look at the information below for some resources to assist with various topics we’ll cover over the span of the year.

The Honest to Goodness Truth on What Is a Variable in Math

A step process often assists in tackling a word issue. It permits you to check and see whether you experience an understanding of these sorts of problems. Locate the merchandise and use the answer key to confirm your solution.

Typically, a variable’s scope is set by its enclosing block. An excellent case of this sort of symbol is supplied by parentheses, which indicate the order in which arithmetical operations should be carried out. It’s well worth noting that you either have to push the values from the base of the array or utilize action Array Process Reverse to renew the original purchase.

It is contingent on the variable type. I would like to show you exactly what I mean. You do not have to define or declare a variable before it’s used.

這篇文章 The Ultimate What Is a Variable in Math Trick 最早出現於 公民行動影音紀錄資料庫

The Ultimate What Is a Variable in Math Trick

2019, July 2 - 22:17
The Characteristics of What Is a Variable in Math

The outcome of the operations are set to missing values. JMeter stipulates a tool that will help you construct function calls for various built-in functions, which you may then copy-paste. The actual data is called thetesting set.

The What Is a Variable in Math Pitfall

You add terms having the exact same variables due to the fact that they represent the exact same quantities. To begin with, the probability density function has to be normalized. It’s the coefficient in the expression 5x.

A system of equations is a selection of a couple of equations with the exact same set of unknowns. A cubic function is one of the most troublesome kinds of polynomial equation you might want to solve by hand. Independent variables are values that could be changed in a specific equation or experiment.

www.ozessay.com.au/research-paper-help/

Algebra Expressions are required in computer apps that are written to process real world scenarios. Most equations are more difficult to solve and you must simplify the equation before you’re able to observe the solution. You may select unique variables to customize these Equations Worksheets for your requirements.

Our lesson planning worksheet will be able to help you estimate. Variables have many beneficial applications, but all of these are when a very best answer should be found. Algebra is far more interesting when things are somewhat more real.

Finding the Best What Is a Variable in Math

To https://dornsife.usc.edu/cwphd
put it differently the parenthesis doesn’t signify that f is multiplied by x. Additionally, the bar heights in the histogram are extremely determined by the option of bin edges and bin widths. But also take a look at the bottom to obtain any new entries.

Since c occurs in a term that’s a constant use of x, it’s known as the constant term. Well, not every rectangle is likely to have the very same length and width, thus we can use an algebraic expression with variables to be a symbol of the region and then plug in the right numbers to evaluate it. See how often it’s possible to address the variable x in 1 minute.

Top What Is a Variable in Math Secrets

For that reason, it remains constant. Indeterminate values are a little different. Treat both cases separate.

Standard deviation can be hard to interpret as a single number by itself. It may be used to locate unknown numbers. If we don’t know it’s linear, it is helpful to plot numerous points to clearly find the curve of the graph.

The Hidden Secret of What Is a Variable in Math

Generally mathematical usage, however, term isn’t restricted to additive expressions. It’s a true thing, and you may have a use for it. Since a variable reflects a quantity which could take on various values, its use has come to be a crucial portion of nearly all disciplines which use mathematical models to symbolize the actual world.

The dependent variable is the quantity of plant development. Likewise a premium is paid to obtain a choice to purchase or sell the underlying, at some time later on, if it’s favourable for the option buyer to execute the choice. For instance, the rate of incoming phone calls differs in line with the good time of day.

essay writing services

You may use the exact same syntax in playbooks. As a consequence, HTML math employs the ISO entity names for symbols instead of the TeX names. Utilize wrapper functions to produce use of one or more of these constructs as variable functions.

Matrices don’t have to explicitly dimensioned, and MATLAB makes it possible for you to raise the magnitude of a matrix as you work. Variables are not anything more than a placeholder. All JavaScript variables must be recognized with unique names.

Our programs take your choices and create the questions you desire, on your computer, as opposed to selecting problems from a prewritten set. As soon as it is undoubtedly solving many problems that most other ML algorithms cannot, additionally it has made many men and women that are just beginning in the area and many who have been in the area for a lengthy time believe it can be employed to fix any issue provided that you stack up enough layers and neurons. It is essential that your students understand the difference.

It should become your objective to know all these concepts ahead of the exam. For instance, if you take a look at salaries for everybody in a particular company, including everyone from the student intern to the CEO, the normal deviation might be rather large. Take a look at the information below for some resources to assist with various topics we’ll cover over the span of the year.

The Honest to Goodness Truth on What Is a Variable in Math

A step process often assists in tackling a word issue. It permits you to check and see whether you experience an understanding of these sorts of problems. Locate the merchandise and use the answer key to confirm your solution.

Typically, a variable’s scope is set by its enclosing block. An excellent case of this sort of symbol is supplied by parentheses, which indicate the order in which arithmetical operations should be carried out. It’s well worth noting that you either have to push the values from the base of the array or utilize action Array Process Reverse to renew the original purchase.

It is contingent on the variable type. I would like to show you exactly what I mean. You do not have to define or declare a variable before it’s used.

這篇文章 The Ultimate What Is a Variable in Math Trick 最早出現於 公民行動影音紀錄資料庫